The Psychology of Heroism

Are Heroes Born or Made??

英雄
英雄是生的还是生的?.

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英雄感动我们的心,让我们充满钦佩,让我们重新审视自己的世界观。Just look at the plethora of superhero movies these days and you can see how much our society values and loves heroes. What makes certain people take heroic actions in the face of great danger??

英雄主义的例子

When you think about heroism,several recent examples that were in the news might spring to mind.在奥罗拉的悲剧剧场拍摄之后,科罗拉多,2012年夏季,three women who survived the shooting revealed that they had been saved by their boyfriends.The three men had shielded their girlfriends with their own bodies and died as a result.在2012年的另一次锡克神庙枪击中,一名男子在试图解除枪手的武装时死亡,另一名男子在试图帮忙时受了重伤。

1月2日,2007,approximately 75 people waiting at a busy subway station watched as a young man suffered a seizure and then fell from the platform onto the subway tracks.Onlookers watched in horror yet did nothing,but a man named Wesley Autrey took action.把他的两个女儿交给一个陌生人,他跳下铁轨,希望有时间把那人拖离迎面而来的火车。When Autrey realized that there was no time to move the other man,当火车从铁轨上经过时,他却把他夹在铁轨之间。

“I don't feel like I did something spectacular;我刚看到一个需要帮助的人。I did what I felt was right,“奥特里告诉The New York Timesafter the incident.

定义英雄主义

“真正的英雄主义是非常清醒的,非常不专业。这不是不惜任何代价超越所有其他人的冲动,但是不惜任何代价为他人服务的冲动。”—亚瑟·阿什,professional tennis player

英雄主义是一种在不同文化中被深深重视的东西,but how exactly do we define a hero?是什么激励了一些人采取英雄行动?虽然研究人员非常了解是什么导致人们做出被描述为邪恶的行为,our understanding of what makes people heroes is not quite so clear and definitions of heroism may differ from person to person.

According to the英雄想象项目(HIP),一个非营利组织,致力于教育人们成为他们日常生活中的英雄,英雄主义包括代表他人或为道德目的的行为或行为。

HIP identifies these key elements of heroism:

  • It's voluntary and intentional
  • 它是为有需要的人或社区服务的
  • It involves some type of personal cost or risk,无论是身体上的,社会的,或者就生活质量而言
  • 这是在不需要补偿或收益的情况下完成的。

专家英雄主义的定义

心理学家和其他英雄主义研究者如何定义英雄主义?Here are just a few of the many suggestions put forth by various experts:

“简单地说,然后,英雄主义的关键是关心其他需要帮助的人——关心捍卫道德事业,知道存在个人风险,在没有期望回报的情况下完成。”-菲利普·辛巴多,“什么造就了英雄?““

“We've found that people's beliefs about heroes tend to follow a systematic pattern.After polling a number of people,we discovered that heroes are perceived to be highly道德的,高度地competent,或者两者兼而有之。More specifically,人们认为英雄有八个特点,我们称之为伟大的八. These traits are聪明的,强的,resilient,selfless,caring,charismatic,reliable,,鼓舞人心的.一个英雄拥有这八个特征是很不寻常的,但大多数英雄都有他们的多数。”- Scott T.Allison and George R.哥特斯“Our Definition of 'Hero'"“

“…似乎没有一个单一的特征可以区分英雄和英雄行为。Heroes are conceptualized diversely,and no rigid boundaries exist in this social category.相反,英雄概念由围绕原型类别成员(Fiske和Taylor,2008;Hepper et al.,2012).英雄最典型的特征,在我们的研究中发现,are bravery,道德操守,勇敢的,保护,conviction,honest,altruistic,自我牺牲,selfless,确定的,保存,inspiring,乐于助人。”- Elaine L.Kinsella,蒂莫西DRitchie,Eric R.Igou“Zeroing in on Heroes: A Prototype Analysis of Hero Features"“

Other definitions often break heroism down by types or degrees of the personal risk and sacrifice involved.有些涉及重大行为,如为了拯救他人而危及生命,while others are smaller,旨在帮助其他需要帮助的人的日常行为。

心理学家弗兰克·法利区分了他所说的大Hheroism and"小H英雄主义。”大H英雄主义涉及潜在的巨大风险,如受伤,入狱,or even death.小H英雄主义,另一方面,涉及到我们很多人每天做的事情;帮助别人,善良,为正义而战。这些事情通常不涉及我们个人的风险。

为什么人们表现出英雄主义

现在我们对英雄主义有了更多的了解,问题转移到人们为什么成为英雄?Are there any英雄主义的特点这些人似乎分享?法利认为,英雄主义的伟大行为背后有两个关键因素,即冒险行为和慷慨大方。为他人服务而冒生命危险的人自然更容易承担更大的风险,而且他们也具有极大的同情心,kindness,移情,和altruism.

研究人员早就知道,人和动物都更有可能帮助与他们基因相关的人,a concept known as kin selection.通过帮助那些分享我们基因的人,我们有助于确保这些基因有可能传给后代。在其他情况下,我们帮助别人,希望有一天他们能帮助我们,an idea known as reciprocal altruism.

但是,那些不依靠帮助亲戚或期望某种回报的利他主义呢?在这种情况下,情境的,文化,and personality variables can play pivotal roles.After people take heroic actions,他们经常声称他们不把自己看作英雄,他们只是在做那种情况下任何人都会做的事情。面对眼前的生死关头,the power and immediacy of the situation can inspire some people to take action.

个性可能影响英雄主义

These same situational forces that galvanize some individuals to heroic acts can actually impede others from helping.When a crisis arises in the presence of many people,we often fall into a trap of inaction by assuming that someone else will offer assistance,a phenomenon known as the旁观者效应.因为个人责任是通过他人的存在而分散的,we believe that someone else will take on the role of the hero.

有些人也可能有性格特征,使他们倾向于以利他和英雄的方式行事。Researchers have suggested that those who have a particular mindset that leads them to behave confidently and morally in difficult situations tend to act immediately and unconsciously when an emergency occurs.

自然vs教养

One of the biggest questions researchers face comes down to the age-old debate over先天与后天.英雄主义是我们与生俱来的,or is heroism something that can be learned?这取决于你问哪位专家,但这里有一个值得思考的观点:

“Some people argue humans are born good or born bad;I think that's nonsense,“explains津巴多.“We are all born with this tremendous capacity to be anything,and we get shaped by our circumstances—by the family or the culture or the time period in which we happen to grow up,which are accidents of birth;whether we grow up in a war zone versus peace;if we grow up in poverty rather than prosperity....所以我们每个人都有能力做可怕的事情。但我们也拥有一个内在的英雄;if stirred to action,那个内心的英雄能够为他人表现出巨大的善良。”“

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